Metz, S. E., Baelen, R. N.; & Yu, A. (2020). Actively open-minded thinking in American adolescents. Review of Education.


        Metz, S. E.; Weisberg, D. S.; & Weisberg, M. (2020). A case of sustained internal contradiction: Unresolved ambivalence between evolution and creationism. Journal of Culture and Cognition, 20(3-4), 338-354.


        Liquin, E.; Metz, S. E.; Lombrozo, T. (2020). Science demands explanation, religion tolerates mystery. Cognition, 204, 104398.


        Metz, K. E.; Cardace, A.; Wong, N.; Berson, E.; Ly, U.; Sisk-Hilton, S.; Metz, S. E.; & Wilson, M. R. (2019). Primary grade children’s capacity to understand microevolution: The power of leveraging their fruitful intuitions and engagement in scientific practices. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 28(4-5), 556-615.


      Metz, S. E.; Skolnick Weisberg, D.; & Weisberg, M. (2018). Non-scientific criteria for belief support counter-scientific beliefs. Cognitive Science.

        Weisberg, D. S.; Landrum, A.; Metz, S. E.; & Weisberg, M. E. (2018). No missing link: Knowledge predicts acceptance of evolution in the United States. BioScience, 8 (3), 212-222.


        Zhang, A. X.; Ranganathan, A.; Metz, S. E.; Appling, S.; Sehat, C. M.; Gilmore, N.; Adams, N. B.; Vincent, E.; Lee, J.; Robbins, M.; Bice, E.; Hawke, S.; Karger, D.; & Mina, A. X. (2018). A structured response to misinformation: Defining and annotating credibility indicators in news articles. Companion Proceedings of the Web Conference 2018, International World Wide Web Conference Steering Committee, pp. 603-612.


      Metz, S. E. (2017). Is epistemology a stance or a toolbox? Epistemological reasoning in adolescence. (Chapter 2 of Doctoral Dissertation). University of Pennsylvania.


      Metz, S. E. (in preparation). The role of explanatory power in judging what to believe about evolution.


      Metz, S. E; Eichstaedt, J.E.; Yaden, D.; Smith, L.; Buffone, A.; & Mellers, B. (in preparation). Here, we listen: Using Twitter language to characterize and measure actively open-minded thinking across the United States.


      Daeun Park, A.; Yu, A.; Tsukayama, E.; Metz, S. E.; Crum, A.; Duckworth, A. (2017). Beliefs about stress buffer detrimental effects of adverse life events on perceived stress and self-control. Child Development.


      Baron, J., Gurcay, B. & Metz, S. E. (2016). Reflective thought and actively open-minded thinking. In Toplak, M & Weller, J. (Eds.) Individual Differences in Judgment and Decision-Making: A Developmental Perspective.  Psychology Press, Routledge.

      Baron, J., Scott, S., Fincher, K., & Metz, S. E. (2015). Why does the Cognitive Reflection Test (sometimes) predict utilitarian moral judgment (and other things)? Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, Special Issue on Modeling and Aiding Intuitions in Organizational Decision Making, J. Marewski & U. Hoffrage, (Eds.).


      Mellers, B.; Stone, E.; Atanasov, P.; Rohrbaugh, N.; Metz, S. E.; Ungar, L.; Bishop, M.; Horowitz, M.; Merkle, E.; & Tetlock, P. (2015). The psychology of intelligence analysis: Drivers of prediction accuracy in world politics. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 21(1), 1-14.


      Tetlock, P. E., Metz, S. E., Scott, S. E., & Suedfeld, P. (2014) Integrative complexity coding raises integratively complex issues. Journal of Political Psychology: Special Issue.



      Metz, S. E. (7/6/2015) “Creationists’ Criteria for Credence: An account of the conflicting frameworks of evolution and creationism.” Symposium talk at the International Society for History and Philosophy of Social Science and Biology, Montreal.


      Metz, S. E. (6/4/2015) “A Plea for Metaframeworks.” Poster presentation at the Society for Philosophy and Psychology, Durham, SC.


     Metz, S. E. & Tetlock, P. E. (1/19/2013) “The Open-minded Hedgehog: Separating belief in basic principles from need for closure in the Hedgehog-Fox distinction.” Poster presentation at the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, New Orleans, LA.


     Metz, S. E. (11/15/2013) “Seeking an ontology of open-mindedness.” Poster presentation at the Society for Judgment and Decision-Making, Toronto, Canada.

Research Interests


  • Psychology of epistemology: how laypeople and scientists think about knowledge, justification, and disagreement, and how such conceptions influence how they develop, test, and adjust their beliefs.

  • Developing and testing interventions for improving scientific thinking, with a focus on actively open-minded thinking and appropriate integration of the subjective and objective, individual and social aspects of knowledge construction.

  • How culture, social affiliations, and relationships affect epistemic cognition, especially across lines of disagreement over facts and/or values.

  • Developing theory and measures of actively open-minded thinking, as a framework for defining habits of critical thinking and understanding precursors and benefits.​


  • Philosophy of psychology: the ontology of constructs in social psychology, issues in operationalization, sociology of psychological research.











Society for Philosophy and Psychology               [6/2013-present]


Society for Judgment and Decision Making      [10/2013-present]


Ad hoc reviewer for European Journal of Social Psychology, Episteme, Journal of Judgment and Decision Making, Journal of Political Psychology.          [10/2013-present]



Phi Beta Kappa Society                                         [5/2009-present]


Sigma Xi Research Society                                   [5/2009-present]


Society for Personality and Social Psychology     [12/2011-present]

- S. Emlen Metz -